Urban and rural settlements in Turkey have been exposed to various types of disasters, throughout its history, since the country is located in a sensitive geography in terms of disaster hazards.
17 August 1999 Marmara Earthquake which has resulted in remarkable losses both in human and social terms and physical and economic aspects, showed clearly that significant inadequacies exist in the current “urban planning system” and “disaster management” approaches which have mostly focused on post-disaster works and “engineering approaches” which take the disaster issue in building scale and focusing basically on earthquake. 1999 Marmara Earthquake within this context has brought up the necessity of reshaping the existing planning system by the disaster sensitive approaches.
After the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement has started various works within the context of MEER Project, in order to revise the planning system and develop the new policies and tools to regulate planning and implementation processes by considering disaster risks. The Ministry has defined a new project under the A-3-1 component of the MEER Project, “Land-use Method and Building Code Enforcement”. The project is consisting of the following components:
- specifying planning and urban design standards for the disaster risky areas, by taking into account local conditions and the differentiations between urban and rural areas,
- preparing the Manual for the planning and urban design standards which will be implemented in the disaster risky areas, and
- to prepare a legislation proposal in order to implement the new standards in planning and urban design projects.
The objective of the Project is defined by the Ministry, “…to specify planning and urban design standards for the disaster risky areas, by considering local features and land use differentiations, which are acceptable and applicable in national level.”
The Manual prepared within the scope of the Project named as “Specifying Planning and Urban Design Standards in the Disaster Risky Areas”, is composed of following sections:
- Aims and Scope
- Disaster Types Occurred in Turkey and Measures to be Taken by Disaster Types
- Planning and Urban Design According to Current Legislation
- Disaster Mitigation Approaches and Methodologies in Planning Process
- Disaster Mitigation Principles, Strategies and Standards in Planning and Urban Design
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